COX-2 Inhibitors. Celecoxib: Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) that is a COX-2 inhibitor. However, Celecoxib is capable of blocking several other proteins in the COX-2 signaling pathway, and antiapoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1  Synthesis of celecoxib analogs that possess a N-hydroxypyrid-2(1H)one 5-lipoxygenase pharmacophore: biological evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity. Chowdhury MA, Abdellatif KR, Dong Y, Das D, Suresh MR, Knaus E Celecoxib and mefenamic acid, selective COX-2 inhibitors, were used as the standard drugs.Results: The pharmacophore features obtained were aromatic ring (hydrophobicity) and two hydrogen bond.
Design and synthesis of novel celecoxib analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: replacement of the sulfonamide pharmacophore by a sulfonylazide bioisoster Celecoxib (13) and rofecoxib (17) analogues, in which the respective SO2NH2 and SO2Me hydrogen-bonding pharmacophores were replaced by a dipolar azido bioisosteric substituent, were investigated. Molecular modeling (docking) studies showed that the azido substituent of these two analogues (13, 17) was inserted deep into the secondary pocket of the human COX-2 binding site where it undergoes. Celecoxib is a hydrophobic and highly permeable drug which belongs to class II of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). Low aqueous solubility of celecoxib leads to high variability in absorption after oral administration
Synthesis of celecoxib analogues possessing a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one 5-lipoxygenase pharmacophore: biological evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity. by Morshed A Chowdhury, Khaled R A Abdellatif, Ying Dong, Dipankar Das, Mavanur R Suresh, Edward E Knaus Results and discussion Pharmacophore generationPharmacophore models of COX-2 selective inhibitors are already described in the literature but were established from a not very diverse training set [41e47]. To set up a more general pharmacophore, a larger structural diversity was taken into account formulation development of self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (snedds) of celecoxib for improvement of oral bioavailability pdf Gurjeet Kaur, Pankaj Chandel and S.L. Harikumar 2013 Issue Development of the non-ulcerogenic selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex®, 1) 1 provided a significant advancement in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. 2 The SO 2 NH 2 pharmacophore present in celecoxib is believed to induce COX-2 selectivity by insertion into the secondary (2 o) pocket of the COX-2 binding site that is absent in COX-1 Synthesis of celecoxib analogues possessing a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one 5-lipoxygenase pharmacophore: biological evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity. Chowdhury MA, Abdellatif KR, Dong Y, Das D, Suresh MR, Knaus E
Celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is the first specific inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) approved to treat patients with rheumatism and osteoarthritis In this study we used the scaffold of celecoxib which exhibits several activities against different pathogens, for the design and focused synthesis of a library of 64 compounds. For the primary screen, we used a bioluminescence-based method by constructing a luciferase-expressing reporter M.tb strain which contains the entire bacterial Lux operon cloned in a mycobacterial integrative expression vector
Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 (IC 50 s = 22.9 and 0.05 μM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). 1,2 In vivo, celecoxib (0.3 ml of a 0.4% solution) administered intra-articularly reduces production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-3 as well as articular cartilage damage in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis. 3 It reduces blood glucose and improves renal function and memory deficits via downregulation of COX-2 expression and increased BDNF -TrkB signaling in rats with diabetes induced by. 1. Bioorg Chem. 2018 Aug;78:103-114. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.03.011. Epub 2018 Mar 8. Design, synthesis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activity of novel pyrazolones possessing aminosulfonyl pharmacophore as inhibitors of COX-2/5-LOX enzymes: Histopathological and docking studies Salunke et al. determined the celecoxib's 'anti-TB' pharmacophore and prepared several derivatives with micromolar activity in vitro and in ma crophages . The most significant is the exchange.. 1. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Oct 15;21(20):6074-80. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.08.053. Epub 2011 Aug 19. Isomeric acetoxy analogs of celecoxib and their evaluation as cyclooxygenase inhibitors
Celecoxib (Celebrex) selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme by binding to its sulfonamide side chain. This active binding site is specific to the COX-2 enzymes. COX-2-mediated inhibition leads to analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Celecoxib has proven efficacy in treating the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis Compounds  and  were potent COX-2 inhibitors which showed higher selectivity than celecoxib . Besides, a group of 2-aryl, 3-benzyl-(1,3-oxazolidine or 1,3-thiazolidine)-4-ones possessing a SO2Me pharmacophore at the para-position of C-2 phenyl ring were reported by Zarghiet al. Compound  (COX-2, IC50 = 0.21 μM; SI > 476), has a.
. Md Jashim Uddin Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 With this aim we have developed a pharmacophore based on the geometric disposition of chemical features in the most favorable conformation of the COX-2 selective inhibitors SC-558 (2; analogue of Celecoxib (1)) and Rofecoxib (3) and the more restrained compounds 4 (DFU) and 5. The pharmacophore model contains a sulfonyl S atom, an aromatic ring (ring plane A) with a fixed position of the normal to the plane, and an additional aromatic ring (ring plane B), both rings forming a dihedral angle. Celecoxib and mefenamic acid, selective COX-2 inhibitors, were used as the standard drugs. Results: The pharmacophore features obtained were aromatic ring (hydrophobicity) and two hydrogen bond.
. For the development of pharmacophore hypothesis, a total of 43 previously reported compounds were docked on active site of COX-2 enzyme. The generated pharmacophore features were ranked using energetic terms of Glide XP. WORKING OF PHARMACOPHORE • 1st identify Pharmacophore • Then identify diverse chemical compounds which share same features using database 31. EXAMPLE ( WORKING OF PHARMACOPHORE) • Selective COX-2 inhibitors • Valdecoxib, Rofecoxib, Celecoxib Source: google images 32 Abstract. In the present study we have investigated whether pharmacophore models may account for the activity and selectivity of the known cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors of the phenylsulfonyl tricyclic series, i.e., Celecoxib (1) and Rofecoxib (3), and whether transferring this structural information onto the frame of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID), known to. The significance of our study is in bringing together the pyrazole (excellent anti-inflammatory agent) and sulfonamide pharmacophore, known too for its wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory activities, 25,26 to obtain a derivative that is new and with a better pharmacological profile with fewer side effects. As part of our continuous research and efforts to design and develop a novel pyrazole-based anti-inflammatory agent with COX1/2-inhibition effect and.
The pharmacophore generated were based on the diversity of chemical structures of COX-2 inhibitors which were SC-558, celecoxib, 5c-S, SC-75416 and lumiracoxib. As SC-558 was bounded in two different PDB complexes (1CX2 and 6COX), a common pharmacophore feature was generated to represent the pharmacophore feature of SC-553 The studies suggest that the pharmacophore would be useful in the design of molecules with similar or improved activity to that of the celecoxib analogs. In addition, it provides a plausible mechanism of action for the anti-proliferative effects of the benzimidazoles and illustrates that the molecules maintain a similar binding mode to that of. A new group of hybrid nitric oxide (NO) releasing anti-inflammatory (AI) coxib prodrugs (NO-coxibs) wherein the para-tolyl moiety present in celecoxib was replaced by a N-(4-nitrooxybutyl)piperidyl 15a-b, or N-(4-nitrooxybutyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl 17a-b, NO-donor moiety was synthesized. All co Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 (IC 50 s = 22.9 and 0.05 μM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). 1,2 In vivo, celecoxib (0.3 ml of a 0.4% solution) administered intra-articularly reduces production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-3 as well as articular cartilage damage in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis. 3 It reduces blood glucose and improves renal function and memory deficits via. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of celecoxib like compounds. Download. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of celecoxib like compounds. Ovais Rizvi. and anti-inflammatory evaluation of new 1,3,5-triaryl-4,5- dihydro-1H-pyrazole derivatives possessing an aminosulphonyl pharmacophore
QSAR methods are widely applied in the drug discovery process, both in the hit‐to‐lead and lead optimization phase, as well as in the drug-approval process. Most QSAR algorithms are limited to using molecules as input and disregard pharmacophores or pharmacophoric features entirely. However, due to the high level of abstraction, pharmacophore representations provide some advantageous. This pharmacophore model contains three chemical features: two aromatic ring, R, (gray) and one hydrogen bond acceptor, HBA, (green). Fig. 3 shows as an example the alignment of the hypothesis model with compound 14 (celecoxib) of the training set. Fig. 2. The top-ranked chemical feature-based pharmacophore model developed usin Figure 4 shows the binding mode of compounds 35, 38, and 39 compared with celecoxib. The p-methyl phenyl group of celecoxib (colored in blue, Fig. 4a-c) resided in a close pocket surrounded by Tyr371 (or Tyr385) and Leu370 (or Leu384) whereas the benzene sulfonamide group (pharmacophore of celecoxib) lied the side pocket of Arg499 (or Arg513)
Crystalline celecoxib was found to contain an ordered network of H‐bonding between all its electron donors (‐S=O group, 2‐N of pyrazole ring and ‐C‐F) and the acceptor (‐N‐H). Amorphous celecoxib retained all these interactions in its disordered molecular arrangement, with a relatively stronger H‐bonding between the interacting. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 16 (2006) 4483-4487 Design and synthesis of new water-soluble tetrazolide derivatives of celecoxib and rofecoxib as selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors Latifeh Navidpour,a Mohsen Amini,a Hamed Shafaroodi,b Khosrou Abdi,a Mohammad H. Ghahremani,c Ahmad Reza Dehpourd and Abbas Shaﬁeea,* a Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical. celecoxib with active site residues of human COX-2 The HipHop algorithm computes ten common pharmacophore hypotheses and Hypo1 is considered as the most reliable pharmacophore hypothesis containing three HBD and one Hydrophobe and one positive ionizable feature. All the compound 47. Gurjeet Kaur, Pankaj Chandel and Harikumar S L, Formulation Development of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) of Celecoxib For Improvement of Oral Bioavailability, Pharmacophore, 4(4), 2013, 120-133. 48
Conclusions: The pharmacophore model is a very handy tool for new lead compounds discovery and development. In this study pharmacophore models were built for novel drugs of colorectal cancer and they could be recommended for further studies. Key words: Ligand, Pharmacophore, anti-colon cancer drugs, Computer aided drug designing, LigandScout. . All compounds were more selective for COX-2 i A new series of 1,4,5-trisubstituted triazole-bearing benzenesulphonamide moiety, COX-2 pharmacophore, was designed and synthesized. The synthetic pathway for preparation of the new 1,2,3-triazole derivatives started with the preparation of the two key intermediates: 4-(4-acetyl-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide 3 and 4-(4-(hydrazinecarbonyl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl. 558 (2; analogue of Celecoxib (1)) and Rofecoxib (3) and the more restrained compounds 4 (DFU) and 5. The pharmacophore model contains a sulfonyl S atom, an aromatic ring (ring plane A) with a fixed position of the normal to the plane, and an additional aromatic ring (ring plane B), both rings forming a dihedral angle of 290° ( 10°
Synthesis of celecoxib analogues possessing a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one 5-lipoxygenase pharmacophore: biological evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity. Morshed A Chowdhury et al 22.pharmacophore 1. Pharmachophore Identification of pharmachophore Abhijeet Kadam TSEC BioTechnology 2. Defination A pharmacophore is a specific 3D arrangement of functional groups within a molecular framework that are necessory to bind to a macromolecule and/or an enzyme active site The identification of pharmacophore is important step in understanding the interactions between a receptor and. Synthesis of celecoxib analogs that possess a N-hydroxypyrid-2 (1H) one 5-lipoxygenase pharmacophore: Biological evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5 MA Chowdhury, KRA Abdellatif, Y Dong, D Das, MR Suresh, EE Knau A novel synthesis of 2-hydroxy-N′-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) benzohydrazide derivatives was synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxybenzohydrazide with substituted isatins. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, and mass spectral data. Further, the compounds were screened for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema method
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of pain and inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. A series of novel 2-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl)pyrimidine derivatives has been reported as COX-2 inhibitors. In order to understand the structural requirement of these COX-2 inhibitors, a ligand-based pharmacophore and atom-based 3D-QSAR model. Background: A series of 5-(arylideneamino)-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitriles 8a-h was synthesized via reaction of triethylorthoformate 1 with malononitrile 2 in. Introduction Development of the non-ulcerogenic selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex®, 1 ) 1 provided a significant advancement in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. 2 The SO 2 NH 2 pharmacophore present in celecoxib is believed to induce COX-2 selectivity by insertion into the secondary (2 o ) pocket of the COX.
Pharmacophore proteins as references . The hit compounds were then checked for models of selected protein data sets were aligned together on the basis Lipinski rule of five only five compounds were fulfilling all the rules of structure, to generate a shared feature pharmacophore shown in of Lipinski, i.e., molecular weight<500 Da, HBD<5. Celecoxib, valdecoxib and parecoxib (prodrug of valdecoxib) possess sulphonamide (SO 2 NH 2) group, whereas etoricoxib and rofecoxib have a methyl sulphone (SO 2 CH 3) group at the para-position of one of the aryl rings . Several attempts were made to extensively manipulate the ring system that is fused with the cis-stilbene system to include. Ding et al 18 found gastric toxicity of celecoxib and developed human/mouse specific mPGES-1 inhibitory benzylidenebarbituric acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents with GI safety. LFA-9 is a human/rat/mouse-specific mPGES-1/5-LOX inhibitor and maintains homeostatic levels of TXB 2 and spared PGI 2 levels as equal to that of the healthy. Discovered in the late 1990's, COX-2 selective inhibitors (the COXIBs: celecoxib, rofecoxib) are diarylheterocycles possessing a SO 2 NH 2 or SO 2 Me group as COX-2 pharmacophore, which exert.
Ein Pharmakophor ist derjenige Teil (bzw. besteht aus denjenigen Eigenschaften) eines Moleküls, die für dessen pharmakologische Wirkung verantwortlich sind. Dabei werden alle sterischen und elektronischen Eigenschaften, die notwendig sind, um Wechselwirkungen mit einer bestimmten biologischen Zielstruktur zu ermöglichen und eine biologische Antwort auszulösen oder zu blockieren. Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. In order to identify the important chemical features of PDK-1 inhibitors, a 3D QSAR pharmacophore model was developed based on 21 available PDK-1 inhibitors. The best pharmacophore model (Hypo1) exhibits all the important chemical features required for PDK-1 inhibitors
pharmacophore is believed to induce COX-2 selectivity.23 Promoted with the above mentioned findings the present study aimed at gathering the two bioactive entities (chlacones containing dimethylaminophenyl SHORT COMMUNICATION Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of celecoxib like compound HCC cell lines . In addition, celecoxib was shown to be a gastrointestinally safe anti-inflammatory analgesic agent. The sulfonylthioureido group has emerged as the most favourable pharmacophore. Sulfonylthioureido and 4-thiazolidinone groups in combination resulted in anticancer  and anti-inflammatory  activities Extraction and visualization of potential pharmacophore points using support vector machines: application to ligand-based virtual screening for COX-2 inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 3;48(22):6997-7004. (50) of 0.2 microM, which is better than Celecoxib in our assay. It was demonstrated that the SVM machine-learning method can be used in. Pharmacophore. Submit Manuscript 2014 Volume 5 - Issue 3 1. IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF CELECOXIB TABLETS USING NANOPARTICLE APPROACH PDF. Mukesh Garg, B. Srivastava, Kanchan Kohli, Simrata Bedi and Pankaj Sharma. 2014 Issue 3 4.. its own pharmacological properties. Among them sulfonamide pharmacophore has conceivedimportance in medicinal chemistry owing to its immense biological properties. It is the core unit in many well-known drugs like Darunavir (protease inhibitor) and Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor)
Celecoxib Rofecoxib By adopting an appropriate scaffold for the c/s-alkene pharmacophore, it would be possible to modulate both in vitro and in vivo characteristics of such inhibitors, such as dosing regimen, daily dose, clinical indications arising from tissue distribution characteristics, safety profile, and so on The current work is focused on in silico modeling of COX-1 inhibitors with enhanced safety gastric profile. A 5-point pharmacophore model, atom-based 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and electronic properties were computed for a series of COX-1 inhibitors. The best pharmacophore model AAHRR.10 consisting of two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrophobic site, and two.
Studi Farmakofor Reseptor COX-2 Sebagai Anti Inflamasi Nursalam Hamzah1, Ahmad Najib 2, Nurshalati Thahir 1, Ika Misqawati 1 . 1 Jurusan Farmasi Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Makassar 2 Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Muslim Indonesia Makassar . ABSTRACT . Cyclooxygenase (COX) receptor is a dual-function receptor that bound to the membrane which acts to catalyze two. Celecoxib-d 7 is intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of celecoxib (Item No. 10008672) by GC- or LC-MS. Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 (IC 50 s = 22.9 and 0.05 μM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). 1,2 It displays chemopreventive activity in multiple tumor types via proapoptotic effects that are independent of COX-2 inhibition. 3,4,5 Formulations. Kaur, Gurjeet; Chandel, Pankaj; Harikumar, S. L. // Pharmacophore;Jul/Aug2013, Vol. 4 Issue 4, p120 Celecoxib is a hydrophobic and highly permeable drug which belongs to class II of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) The active site of COX-2 with a bound molecule of SC558, a COX-2 selective inhibitor and celecoxib analog. The SO 2 NH 2 pharmacophore of SC558 inserts into the COX-2 side-pocket, where one sulfonamide oxygen atom forms a H-bond with Arg-513,. Aim: Ligand-based pharmacophore modeling requires long list of inhibitors, while pharmacophores based on single ligand-receptor crystallographic structure can be too restricted or promiscuous.Methodology: This prompted us to combine simulated annealing molecular dynamics (SAMD) with ligand-receptor contacts analysis as means to construct pharmacophore model(s) from single ligand-receptor.
Celecoxib and SC-558 were chosen as reference ligands to identify the COX-2 binding mode of the synthesized compounds. As can be seen, all synthesized compounds bind to the secondary pocket of COX-2. Figure S1: pharmacophore features of SC-558 and rofecoxib. Figure S2: binding orientation of SC-558 (cyan) in 6COX and the docking result of. • A new pharmacophore model for the design of sigma-1 ligands validated on a large experimental dataset. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2019, 10(Art.519): 1-16 • Differential Solution Behavior of the New API-API Co-Crystal of Tramadol-Celecoxib (CTC) versus Its Constituents and Their Combination. Crystal growth and design. 2019, Epub ahead of. Azido Pharmacophore , COX-2 inhibitors, Hydrazide Moiety A group of 1,3-biarylhydrazide derivatives possessing a COX-2 azido pharmacophore at the Para- position of the C-1 phenyl ring in conjunction with a N-3 phenyl or substituted-phenyl ring (4-F,4-Cl,4-OMe) were designed and synthesized based on nucleophilic substitution reaction Pharmacophore features can be toggled on or off to include them in or remove them from the search. Pressing the x to the right of the pharmacophore removes it from the menu entirely. By pressing the arrow to the left of a given pharmacophore, the user can vary the type, radius, and location of a pharmacophore, as well as optionally. Pharmacogn J. Pharmacognosy Journal 0975-3575 Pharmacogn J-10-4 10.5530/pj.2018.4.135 Original Article Pharmacophore Modelling of Brassicaceae Members as Potent HIF (Hypoxia Inducible Factor) Inhibitors Involved in Cancer Angiogenesis RenukadeviJeyavel*1 NandhinideviGanesan1 BavanilathaMuthiah2 TharaniHemanath1 SathiyabamaRajarajan1 VasumathiSubramani1 1Department o
The first COX-2 drug we are going to draw is Celebrex (Celecoxib) from Pfizer. Click on the Molecular Editor button and use the bond and atoms button to skethc Celebra (shown). Note you can monitor key chemical properties of the molecule as you sketch it. In this example the 3D pharmacophore has already been extracted from a ligand Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, pyridazine derivatives have emerged as a novel prototype to develop COX-2 inhibitors. Accordingly, some pyridazine-based COX-2 inhibitors are reported herein. The reaction of aldehyde 3 and different hydrazines yielded the corresponding hydrazones. The hydrazones were further derivatized to. Mapping of the five chemotypes of COX-2 inhibitors from training set onto the selected pharmacophore (hypothesis 1) (a) pharmacophore (hypothesis 1) (b) compound 1, celecoxib derivative (c) compound 3, diarylpyrazole derivative (d) compound 7, isooxazole derivative (e) compound 11, indole derivative (f) compound 12, diaryl olefin derivative (g) compound 18, cyclopentene derivative (h) compound. With cancer‐related fatalities being the second leading cause of death in the USA, understanding the activity of effective chemotherapeutic agents is critical to addressing prostate and other cancers. Celecoxib, an FDA‐approved drug for the treatment of colon tumors, has been used successfully as a lead compound in the development of antiproliferative agents. The ability of celecoxib to. Figure 1: Refined alignments for the five actives that match the five-point consensus pharmacophore from Figure 1 in Consensus Pharmacophores. As noted above, refinement is performed only on the relatively small number of pharmacophores that remain in the sorted, capped list after considering all consensus alignments arising from a given active
Pharmacogn J. Pharmacognosy Journal 0975-3575 Pharmacogn J-10-4 10.5530/pj.2018.4.136 Review Article Indonesian Herbal SGLT2 Inhibitor Discovery through Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening Rezwendy SyahdiRezi Riadhi YanuarArry* Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI, Depok, 16424, INDONESIA. Correspondence Arry Yanuar Faculty of Pharmacy, Universita The analogs of nitrogen-based heterocycles occupy an exclusive position as a valuable source of therapeutic agents in medicinal chemistry. More than 75% of drugs approved by the FDA and currently available in the market are nitrogen-containing heterocyclic moieties. In the forthcoming decade, a much greater share of new nitrogen-based pharmaceuticals is anticipated. Many new nitrogen-based.