Pathogenesis of encephalitis

Meningococcal Meningitis - Positive Parenting

Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which may result in a more advanced and serious disease meningoencephalitis. To establish accurate diagnosis and develop effective vaccines and drugs to overcome this disease, it is important to understand and elucidate the mechanism of its pathogenesis Japanese encephalitis is an infectious encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus transmitted by mosquitoes, called 'Culex' mosquitoes. Death from encephalitis Encephalitis is a serious neurological condition and unfortunately, despite improvements in specific and more supportive treatments such as excellent intensive care management, encephalitis still has a high mortality (death) rate Mosquitoes or ticks inoculate arbovirus, and rabies virus is transferred via an infected animal bite or exposure to animal secretions. With some viruses, such as varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and.. Molecular Pathogenesis of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis 1. Introduction: Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis. Autoimmune Encephalitis. S. Kamei, Acute juvenile female non-herpetic... 2. NMDAR: Structure. D. R. Lynch, N. J. Anegawa, T. Verdoorn, and D. B. Pritchett, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors:... 3.. According to Nörenberg et al., oxidative stress induced by ammonia is a major pathogenic factor in the ALF HE pathogenic and causes a whole cascade of events leading to cell swelling and brain edema. However, encephalopathy in chronic liver disease is not accompanied by cerebral edema [58, 59]

Pathogenesis of Encephalitis IntechOpe

It occasionally develops after encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus, even when the encephalitis was successfully treated. Pathophysiology of Encephalitis In acute encephalitis, inflammation and edema occur in infected areas throughout the cerebral hemispheres, brain stem, cerebellum, and, occasionally, spinal cord Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare but severe immune-mediated brain disorder leading to unilateral hemispheric atrophy, associated progressive neurological dysfunction and intractable seizures. Recent data on the pathogenesis of the disease, its clinical and paraclinical presentation, and therapeutic approaches are summarized Encephalitis presents as diffuse or focal neuropsychological dysfunction. Although it primarily involves the brain, it often involves the meninges as well (meningoencephalitis). From an.. The term acute viral encephalitis (from Greek enkephalos + -itis, meaning brain inflammation) is used to describe restricted CNS involvement (ie, involvement of the brain, sparing the meninges);.. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain tissue. Primary encephalitis- It occurs when a virus directly infects the brain and spinal cord. Secondary encephalitis- It occurs when an infection starts elsewhere in the body and then travels to your brain. Older adults Children under the age of 1 year People with weak immune system

Pathogenesis of encephaliti

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the major clinical decompensations of cirrhosis, with a high impact on health care resource utilization and cost. For an effective and comprehensive management of HE, the clinicians need to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of HE HSV encephalitis and auto-immunity • Anti-NMDAR antibodies are observed in the blood, CSF or both during the acute-subacute phase of the encephalitis in 30% of the cases, but not during EV and VZV encephalitis • Relapses are frequently linked to the occurrence of anti-NMDAR A The pathogenesis of encephalitis. Entry of virusspecific T cells, usually a host-protective event, can induce encephalitis. The pathology of viral encephalitis is associated with inflammatory (Th1) immune responses against infected cells, such as in Theiler's virus infection of oligodendrocytes. Myelin reactivity can occur as a consequence. The symptomatic cases are, however, characterized with fevers and debilitating encephalitis that might progress into chronic disease or fatal infections. This review summarizes data on clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathology of TBE in humans, and of experimental TBE in animal models with the purpose to explain why is TBE such a severe disease clinically Autoimmune encephalitis is an important cause of new-onset altered mental status, the scope of which has only recently begun to be recognized in the medical literature. 1 ⇓ -3 Despite this increased recognition, it has yet to become an established diagnostic consideration outside of large tertiary referral centers. 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ -5 The term autoimmune encephalitis generally refers.

What is the pathophysiology of encephalitis

HSV-1 is the leading cause of viral encephalitis, most often in the post-neonatal period. In the brain, it causes encephalitis (usually hemorrhagic necrosis. Abstract. Classical paraneoplastic encephalitis syndromes with 'onconeural' antibodies directed to intracellular antigens, and the recently described paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic encephalitides and antibodies against both neural surface antigens (voltage-gated potassium channel-complexes, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) and intracellular antigens (glutamic acid decarboxylase-65. Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) refers to a group of diseases with autoantibodies against various components of CNS neurons. These act against various neuronal processes and pathways, in different..

Molecular Pathogenesis of Anti-NMDAR Encephaliti

Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopath

Encephalitis - Neurologic Disorders - MSD Manual

Pathogenesis and clinical features of Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267 : 171 - 194 . Solomon T Vaughn DW , 2002 Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. neurotransmission. However, their significance in the pathogenesis of HE is not clear. 4 Increased levels of aromatic amino acids (e.g. trytophan), and normal or decreased levels of branched-chain amino acids are well documented in HE.5 Tryptophan is The pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis is now beginning to be understood. The virus is carried into the brain by infected CD4 lymphocytes and perivascular monocytes (see chapter one). Microglial cells pick up free viral particles through receptor-mediated endocytosis or aquire the virus by phagocytosing dying infected lymphocytes Defining the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Neonatal Encephalopathy and Cerebral Palsy Gary D. V. Hankins, MD, and Michael Speer, MD The topics of neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy, as well as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, are of para-mount importance to anyone who ventures to deliver in-fants

Encephalitis (en-sef-uh-LIE-tis) is inflammation of the brain. There are several causes, but the most common is a viral infection. Encephalitis often causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms — such as a fever or headache — or no symptoms at all. Sometimes the flu-like symptoms are more severe. Encephalitis can also cause confused. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus was initially isolated in Japan in 1935. It is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis (inflammation of the brain parenchyma) in Asia and the western Pacific. The virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and. Hepatic encephalopathy, accompanying the acute onset of severe hepatic synthetic dysfunction, is the hallmark of acute liver failure (ALF). Symptoms of encephalopathy in ALF are graded using the same scale used to assess encephalopathy symptoms in cirrhosis.The encephalopathy of cirrhosis and ALF share many of the same pathogenic mechanisms. However, brain edema plays a much more prominent.

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Rasmussen

  1. Encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic injury [Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)] is defined as brain injury caused by the combination of inadequate blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain. AAP and ACOG; Encephalopathy is an acute intrapartum event sufficient to cause neuronal injury evidenced by
  2. Pathogenesis of Hyponatremlc Encephalopathy Current Concepts Allen I. Arieff, M.D.; and]. Carlos Ayus, M.D. H (Cheat 1993; 103:607-10) yponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in a general hospital pop-ulation and is found in association with many different disease states.1 The fact that hyponatremia can b
  3. Neuropathology and Pathogenesis of Encephalitis following Amyloid β Immunization in Alzheimer's Disease. Isidre Ferrer. Corresponding Author. Institut de Neuropatologia, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain. Banc de Teixits Neuròlogics, Hospital Clinic/Universitat de Barcelona, Spain

Encephalitis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiolog

Viral Encephalitis This lecture will discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and numerous causative agents of viral encephalitis, the manifestation of viral infection of the brain parenchyma. Viral encephalitis is characterized by acute fever, headache, and evidence of parenchymal brai The research status of pathogenesis of rasmussen encephalitis. J Clin Psychiatry Neurosci.4(3):1-3. Rasmussen Encephalitis (RE) is a rare, chronic inflammatory disease that starts in children and often affects one hemisphere of the brain. The main clinical manifestation is focal epileptic seizure, progressive hemiplegia pathogenesis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease are described in Figure 2.3. Figure 2.3 . Pathogenesis of LTBI and TB Disease. 1. Area of detail for boxes 2, 4, and 5 . Droplet nuclei containing tubercle bacilli are . inhaled, enter the lungs, and travel to the alveoli. 2. Bronchiol Encephalitis is inflammation of the active tissues of the brain caused by an infection or an autoimmune response. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which can lead to headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, mental confusion and seizures. Encephalitis strikes 10-15 people per 100,000 each year, with more than 250,000 patients.

Viral Encephalitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiolog

  1. Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA , US
  2. Incidence of encephalitis associated with HIV infections has decreased and stabilised since the late 1990s with the advent of antiretroviral therapies. Vora NM, Holman RC, Mehal JM, et al. Burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1998-2010
  3. ated infection, and in.
  4. Shiomi, M. (2011) Pathogenesis of Acute Encephalitis and Acute Encephalopathy. Nihon Rinsho Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 69, 399-408
  5. Encephalitis refers to an acute, usually diffuse, inflammatory process affecting the brain. While meningitis is primarily an infection of the meninges, a combined meningoencephalitis may also occur. An infection by a virus is the most common and important cause of encephalitis, although other organisms may sometimes cause an encephalitis. An encephalitic illness caused by alteration of normal.

Essay on Pathophysiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis. Meningitis and encephalitis are two similar infections of the central nervous system that often lead to fatality of the host organism. Both diseases occur when pathogens enter the blood stream and gain access into the central nervous system. Stimulating inflammation within the cranial. Molecular Pathogenesis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection. Sunit Kumar Singh. Laboratory of Human Molecular Virology and Immunology, Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Search for more papers by this author

Encephalitis - SlideShar

  1. pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in acute liver failure and (2) recognize the influence of other importan t ad-ditional factors in the development of these complications
  2. ants that promote virus invasion into the central nervous system and its associated immunopathology
  3. Encephalopathy happens when a change in your body or your brain affects how well you think. Learn the causes, symptoms, treatments and more
  4. Herpesviral encephalitis, or herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), is encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus.It is estimated to affect at least 1 in 500,000 individuals per year, and some studies suggest an incidence rate of 5.9 cases per 100,000 live births. About 90% of cases of herpes encephalitis are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), the same virus that causes cold sores. 57% of.

Video on the pathogenesis Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis. Video on the pathogenesis Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, also referred as HIE, is a type of brain injury or damage that is caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain during neonatal period. The incidence is approximately 1.5 cases per 1000 live births in developed countries. In low and middle-income countries, the incidence is much higher (10‒20 per 1000 live births). The treatment for neonatal HIE is hypothermia. lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of proteins in the pathogenesis of tick-borne encephalitis and ixodic tick-borne borreliosi Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare disease of unknown etiology that causes severe chronic unihemispheric inflammatory disease of the central nervous system mainly in children Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is an uncommon syndrome associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) and a more general term, nonvasculitic autoimmune meningoencephalitis, are also used to describe this condition. Originally described in 1966, it remains a.

The response of encephalitis and encephalopathies to corticosteroids, Close more info about Understanding Pathogenesis of Neurologic Impairments in Patients With COVID-1 Anti-LGI1 encephalitis is strongly associated with another class II allele, DRB1*07:01, which was carried by nearly 90% of the patients in several studies. 10,11,99 So far, no significant clinical or immunological difference has been reported between DRB1*07:01 carriers and non-carriers. 10,11,99 Regarding its binding properties, in silico. Since the late 1980s, most researchers and clinicians have adopted the Aetiology and pathogenesis of RE term Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) or Rasmussen syndrome RE is a rare disease that should be envisaged as sporadic, for this condition (Piatt et al., 1988; Andermann, 1991) Uremic encephalopathy is a brain disease that develops in patients of acute or chronic renal failure due to uremia, drug toxicity, electrolyte imbalance, thiamine deficiency, transplant rejection, or infections. When the glomerular filtration rate falls below 15 ML/min in chronic kidney disease, it may also cause this organic brain disease

Virus infection of the brain can cause severe and life-threatening disease. Despite this, few therapies beyond intensive supportive care are available to treat patients with encephalitis [1, 2].Anti-viral drugs have been developed for some viruses that can infect the brain, such as Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and 2, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but even with these treatments. Clinical suspicion of neonatal encephalopathy should be considered in any infant exhibiting an abnormal level of consciousness, seizures, tone and reflex abnormalities, apnea, aspiration, feeding difficulties , and an abnormal hearing screen. This topic will review the etiology and pathogenesis of neonatal encephalopathy Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a recently identified autoimmune disease, described by an immune-mediated loss of NMDA glutamate receptors, resulting in progressive mental deterioration. To date, literature on anti-NMDAR encephalitis has been largely clinically oriented, including descriptions of the clinical presentation and course, diagnostic methods, and potential clinical treatments Pathophysiology of Dengue Encephalitis - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. patho-physiolog dentified in the bibliographies of pertinent articles and books. The citations are largely confined to English language articles between 1966 and 1998. Older publications were used if they were of historical significance. Study Selection All investigations in which any aspect of septic encephalopathy was reported were included. This selection encompasses clinical, animal, and in vitro cell.

Septic encephalopathy is a dynamic disease caused by a complex network of systems and pathways going awry. More insights into the pathogenesis of septic encephalopathy are expected to lead to new cellular and molecular targets, which in turn will permit design of specific septic encephalopathy-alleviating drugs and prevent its negative. SUMMARY: Septic encephalopathy is a dynamic disease caused by a complex network of systems and pathways going awry. More insights into the pathogenesis of septic encephalopathy are expected to lead to new cellular and molecular targets, which in turn will permit design of specific septic encephalopathy-alleviating drugs and prevent its negative. The pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus infection was compared in intraperitoneally inoculated mice (n = 24, 6 to 8 weeks old) and hamsters (n = 9, 90-110 g) using histopathology and immunohistochemical localization of VEE virus antigen.Infected mice developed paralysis, and the majority died by 9 days after inoculation

The DWEYS peptide in systemic lupus erythematosus: Trends

Encephalopathy Brain injury in HIE evolves over hours, days and even months. It follows a temporal sequence of brain injury which can be divided into 3 phases (See Figure 2). Background Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious brain injury resulting from severe reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen around the time of birth Mankowski JL, Flaherty MT, Spelman JP, Hauer DA, Didier PJ, Martin Amedee A et al. Pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis: Viral determinants of neurovirulence. Journal of virology . 1997 Aug;71(8):6055-6060 REVIEW Open Access Inflammatory monocytes and the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis Rachael L Terry 1,2,4, Daniel R Getts 4, Celine Deffrasnes 1,2, Caryn van Vreden 1,2, Iain L Campbell 2,3 and Nicholas JC King 1,2* Abstract Monocytes are a heterogeneous population of bone marrow-derived cells that are recruited to sites of infectio

Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein encoded by the secreted phosphoprotein-1 (Spp-1) gene in humans, plays important roles in a variety of physiological conditions, such as biomineralization, bone remodeling and immune functions. OPN also has significant roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, allergy and inflammatory diseases, as well as bacterial, fungal and viral infections MID 39 U.S. WNV Activity 2007 Arboviral encephalitis: Pathogenesis zNon-cytopathic in mosquito vectors zCytopathic in most mammalian cells zHematogenous entry into CNS zArthropodopod b e bite -> repepcao pepeaseslication in peripheral sites -> viremia -> CNS invasion zNeuron is primary CNS target zNeurovirulence from neuronal dysfunction and death induced directly by viru Chambers, Thomas J. ; Diamond, Michael S. / Pathogenesis of flavivirus encephalitis.Advances in Virus Research. 2003. pp. 273-342 (Advances in Virus Research)

Johnson RT. The Pathogenesis of Acute Viral Encephalitis and Postinfectious Encephalomyelitis. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1987 Mar;155(3). https://doi.org/10. Background Pancreatic encephalopathy (PE) is a serious complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In recent years, more and more PE cases have been reported worldwide, and the onset PE in the early stage was regarded as a poor prognosis sign of SAP, but the pathogenesis of PE in SAP still has not been clarified in the past decade

Pathophysiology of Hepatic Encephalopath

The pathogenesis of encephalitis - ScienceDirec

Wu, H., Li, N., Jin, R. et al. Cytokine levels contribute to the pathogenesis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma via STAT3 activation. Sci Rep 6, 18528. Encephalitis often causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms — such as a fever or headache — or no symptoms at all. Pathophysiology of Dengue Encephalitis - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Download PDF Encephalitis lethargica. 19 Abstract : Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, is an important human and veterinary pathogen, and is considered the most deadly of the mosquito-borne alphaviruses due to the high case fatality rate associated with clinical infections, reaching as high as 75% in humans and 90% in horses. In patients that survive, the neurologic sequelae are often. Etiology, Epidemiology, and Pathogenesis of Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA lentivirus in the family Retroviridae. There are several genetically distinct isolates of the virus that differ in virulence Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice II: pathogenesis is dependent of route of exposure. Virol J. 2015; 12(154). doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0385-2. 16. Teunis P, Schijven J, Rutjes S. A generalized dose-response relationship for adenovirus infection and illness by exposure pathway

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It frequently presents with unremitting fever, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and systemic complications (e.g., gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, and hepatic involvement), encephalopathy, and thrombotic events. The respiratory. Metabolic encephalopathy is a transient or permanent impairment of brain function resulting from physiological insufficiency or aberrant metabolic processes accompanying certain systemic illness such as diabetes or liver disease. Timely recognition and treatment of the predisposing condition can reverse the potential damage to the brain. Metabolic Encephalopathy (Brain Disease Metabolic. Autoimmune encephalitis refers to a group of conditions that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy brain cells, leading to inflammation of the brain.People with autoimmune encephalitis may have various neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms. Neurologic symptoms may include impaired memory and cognition, abnormal movements, seizures, and/or problems with balance, speech. Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare, autoimmune disease of the peripheral and central nervous system (i.e., brainstem). BBE is considered a variant of other immune-mediated polyneuropathies, such as Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). BBE classically presents as an acute triad of ataxia, encephalopathy, and ophthalmoplegia, typically subsequent to.

Tick-borne encephalitis: pathogenesis and clinical

Contrast media, Blood-brain barrier, Contrast-induced encephalopathy, Pathogenesis. Introduction. The first use of iodine contrast media (CM) in clinical dates back to the 1920s . Since 1950s, iodinated contrast media have been the most widely used pharmaceuticals for diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures. With the development. The role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of herpes virus encephalitis is discussed. The hypothesis is made that an alteration in the macrophages of the maturing mouse plays an important role in its development of resistance to herpes virus encephalitis. This content is only available as a PDF However, a genetic diagnosis can still only be made in ~30-50% of patients. Most causative mutations reported to date occur in protein-coding regions; few studies have focused on the role of non-coding regions such as enhancers and promoters in the pathogenesis of epilepsy

Encephalitis only happens in rare cases. Encephalitis is most often due to a virus, such as: herpes simplex viruses, which cause cold sores and genital herpes (this is the most common cause of encephalitis) the varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles. measles , mumps and rubella viruses Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. VEEV is highly infectious in aerosol form and a known bio-warfare agent that can cause severe encephalitis in humans. Periodic outbreaks of VEEV occur predominantly in Central and South America. Increased interest in VEEV has resulted in a more thorough understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease In terms of clinical and radiographic findings, there are many similarities among a group of entities, including hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, and immunosuppressant neurotoxicity. Hyperperfusion syndromes may represent these clinical disease states that may share the same pathophysiology

Autoimmune Encephalitis: Pathophysiology and Imaging

  1. Pathophysiology of autoimmune encephalitis: an overview Autoimmune encephalitis presents an immune response against neuronal autoantigens with production of antibodies 6 6. Lancaster E, Dalmau J. Neuronal autoantigens: pathogenesis, associated disorders and antibody testing
  2. encephalopathy. In patients with liver cirrhosis, 1-year sur-vival for those that develop overt hepatic encephalopathy is under 50%. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is complicated due to the multiple disruptions in homeostasis that occur following a reduction in liver function. Of these, elevations of ammonia and neuroinflammation.
  3. Virus-associated acute encephalopathy (VAE) is a severe central nervous system complication caused by common viral infections in children. The pathophysiology of VAE is thought to be endothelial.
  4. Remarkable discoveries over the last two decades have elucidated the autoimmune basis of several, previously poorly understood, neurological disorders. Autoimmune disorders of the nervous system may affect any part of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, CNS) and also the peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction and skeletal muscle (peripheral.
  5. HSV Encephalitis - Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation
  6. Immunopathology of autoantibody-associated encephalitides
  7. Autoimmune Encephalitis Pathophysiolog

The Pathogenesis of Herpes Virus Encephaliti

Diabetes Mellitus - Functional Medical SystemMeasles virus: structure, pathogenesis, clinical featureClinical Manifestation and Pathogenesis of Obligately04Recent Advances in Deciphering Viral and Host Determinants